Between the 1860's and the early 1900's, banking and taxing mechanisms were changing through legislation. Cunning people closely associated with the powers in England had great influence on the legislation being passed in the United States.
Of course, such legislation did not apply to the states or to the people in the states, but making the distinction was not deemed to be a necessary duty of the legislators. It was the responsibility of the people to understand their relationship to the United States and to the laws that were being passed by the legislature.
This distinction between the United States and the states was taught in the homes and the schools and churches. The early admiralty courts 'did not interpret legislation as broadly at that time because the people knew when the courts were overstepping their jurisdiction. The people were in control because they knew who they were and where they were standing in relation to the United States Corporation.
In 1913 the United States added numerous private laws to its books that facilitated the increase of subjects (the newly so-called freed slaves from the Civil War) as property of the United States. The 14th Amendment provided for a new class of citizens - United States citizens that had not formerly been recognized. Until the 14th Amendment in 1868, there were no persons born or naturalized in the United States. They had all been born or naturalized in one of the several states. United States citizenship was a result of state citizenship. After the Civil War, a new class was recognized, and was the beginning of the democracy first positioned in the District of Columbia. The American people, in the republic to be found in the several States, could choose to benefit as one of these new United States citizens BY CHOICE. The new class of citizens was given the privilege to vote in the democracy in 1870 by the 15th Amendment. These new citizen subjects were required to apply for marriage, registered to vote, register births, deaths, etc. It all required was an application. Benefits came with this new citizenship, but with the benefits, came duties and responsibilities and liabilities, that were totally regulated by the legislature for the District of Columbia. Edward Mandell House is attributed with giving a very detailed outline of the plans to be implemented to enslave the American people.
(1) The 13th Amendment in 1865 opened the way for the people to volunteer into slavery to accept the benefits offered by the United States. Whether House actually spoke the words or not is really irrelevant because the scenario detailed in the statement attributed to him has clearly been implemented. Central banking for the United States was legislated with the Federal Reserve Act in 1913. The ability to decrease the currency in circulation through taxation was legislated with the 16th Amendment in 1913. Support for the presumption that the American people had volunteered to participate in the United States democracy was legislated with the 17th Amendment in 1913. The path was provided for the control of the courts by the British Crown, with the creation of the American Bar Association in 1913.
In 1917 the United States legislature passed the Trading with the Enemy Act and the Emergency War Powers Act, opening the doors for the United States to suspend limitations otherwise mandated in the Constitution. Even in times of peace, every contrived and created social, political, or financial emergency was sufficient authority for the officers of the United States to overstep its peace time powers and implement volumes of "law" that would increase the coffers of the United States. There is always a declared emergency in the United States and it’s States (administrative units), but it only applies to their subjects.
In the 1920's the States accelerated the push for mothers to register their babies as first required upon the new federal property - the so-called freed Black slaves. Life was good and people were not paying attention to what was happening in government. The stock market crashed, and those who were not on the inside were not warned to take their money out before they lost everything.
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In the 1930's federal legislation provided for registration of babies through applications for birth certificates, so government workers could get maternity leave with pay. The States pushed for registration (surrender of ownership) of cars through applications for certificates of title, and for registration of land through registration of deeds of trust, which turned the land over to the State. Constructive trusts secretly were created as each of the people blindly walked into the United States democracy, thereby agreeing to be sureties for the debts of the United States. The great depression supplied the diversion to keep the people's attention off what government was doing. The Social Security program was implemented, along with numerous other United States programs that invited the American people to volunteer to be the sureties behind the United States' new registered property and adhesion contracts through the new United States subjects.
The plan was well on its path by 1933. Massive registration (surrender) of property through United States agencies, including the 'State' subdivisions, was assuring the United States and its officers would get rich beyond their wildest expectations. All of this was done without full disclosure of the material facts that accompanied each application for registration. Is that fraud? The fraud was a sufficient reason to charge all the United States officers with treason, UNLESS a remedy could be supplied for the people to recoup their property and collect for the damages they suffered as a result of the fraud.
If a remedy was available, and the people chose not to or failed to use the remedy, no charge of fraud could be sustained even in a common law court. The United States only needed to provide the remedy. It was not required to explain it or even tell the people where the remedy could be found.
The attorneys did not even have to be taught about the remedy. That gave them plausible deniability when the people struggled to understand the new laws. The legislators did not have to have the intricate details of the law explained to them regarding the bills they were passing. That gave them plausible deniability. If the people failed to use their remedy, the United States came out the winner every time. If the people did discover their remedy, the United States had to honor it and release the registered property back to the people, but only if the people knew they had a remedy, and only if they requested it in the proper manner. It was a great plan.
With plausible deniability, even when the people knew they had a remedy and pursued it, the attorneys, judges, and legislators could act like they did not understand the people's claims.
Requiring the public schools to teach civics, government, and history classes out of approved politically correct text books also assured the people would not find the remedy for a very long time. Passing new State and Federal laws that appeared to subject the people to rules and regulations, added another level of protection against the people finding their remedy.
The public 'socialist media' was molded to report politically correct, though substantially incorrect news day after day, until few people would even think there could be a remedy available to them. The people could be separated from their money and their time to pursue the remedy long enough for the solutions to be lost in the millions of pages of the books in huge law libraries across the country.
So many people knew there was something wrong with all the conflicts in the laws with the "facts" taught in the government schools. How' can the American people be free and subject to a de-facto government's whims at the same time? Who would ever have thought the people would be resourceful enough to actually find the remedy? BUT they did!
In 1933 the United States put its insurance policy into place with House Joint Resolution 192 and recorded it in the Congressional Record. It was not required to be promulgated in the Federal Register. An Executive Order issued on April 5, 1933 paving the way for the withdrawal of gold in the United States. Representative Louis T. McFadden brought formal charges on May 23, 1933 against the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank system, the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Secretary of the United States Treasury (Congressional Record May 23, 1933 page 4055-4058). HJR 192 passed on June 3, 1933. Mr. McFadden claimed on June 10, 1933:
"Mr. Chairman, we have in this country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Banks..."
HJR 192 is the insurance policy that protects the legislators from conviction for fraud and treason against the American people. It also protects the American people from damages caused by the actions of the United States. For speaking like he did, Mr. McFadden was poisoned by the powers that be by agents of that federal corporation.
HJR 192 provided that the one with the gold paid the bills. It removed the requirement that the United States subjects and employees had to pay their debts with gold. It actually prohibited the inclusion of a clause in all subsequent contracts that would require payment in gold. It also cancelled the clause in every contract written prior to June 5, 1933, that required an obligation to be paid in gold - retroactively. It provided that the United States subjects and employees could use any type of coin and currency to discharge a public debt as long as it was in use in the normal course of business in the United States.
For a time, United States Notes were the currency used to discharge debts, but later the Federal Reserve and the United States provided a new medium of exchange through paper notes, and debt instruments that could be passed on to a debtor's creditors to discharge the debtor's debts. That same currency, Federal Reserve Notes, is used to discharge public debts. Take note; the Federal Reserve Notes have no value, as stated by the Federal Reserve!
In the 1950's the Uniform Commercial Code was presented to their States as a means of unifying the generally accepted procedures for handling the new legal system of dealing with commercial transactions and fictions as though they were real.
Security instruments (commercial paper) replaced substance as collateral for debts. Security instruments could be supported by presumptive contracts. Debt instruments with collateral, and accommodating parties, could be used instead of money. Money (of exchange) and the need for money was disappearing, and NEW money was being created i.e., 'Money of Account' (created by Bill of Exchange) and a uniform system of laws had to be put in place to allow the commercial venue and the courts to uphold the security instruments that depended on commercial fictions as a basis for compelling payment or performance (see 'Tender of Payment in your State statute!).
All this was accomplished by the mid 1960's. And by 1964, most all the States had adopted the Uniform Commercial Code.
The commercial code is merely a codification of accepted and required procedures all people engaged in commercial activities must follow. The basic principles of commerce had been settled thousands of years ago, but were refined and became more sophisticated over the years.
In the 1900's the age-old principles of commerce shifted from substance to form. Presumption became a big part of the law. Without giving a degree of force to presumption, the new direction in enforcing commercial claims could not be supported in their courts. If the claimants were required to produce their claims every time they tried to collect money or time from the people, they would seldom be successful. The principles expressed in the code combined the means of dealing with substantive commercial activities with the means of dealing with presumptive commercial activities. These principles work as well for the people as they do for the deceivers. The rules do not respect persons.
Those who enticed the people to register (surrender) their property (land, cars, guns, children, etc.) to the sub-divisions (States) under dictate by the United States, gained control of the substance through the 'registrations' and the States were able to extract more 'use' taxes, from the people to use the property of the State! The States and the United States became the Holder of the titles to all the property, even children and many other things.
The definition of "property" is the interest one has in a thing. The thing is the principal. The property is the interest in the thing. Profits (interest) made from the property of another belong to the owner of the thing.
Profits were made by the deceivers by pledging the registered property in commercial markets, but the profits do not belong to the deceivers. The profits belong to the owners of the 'things.' That is always the people. The corporation only shows ownership of paper - titles to things. The substance cannot appear in the fiction. [Watch the movie Last Action Hero and watch the confusion created when they try to mix substance and fiction.] Sometimes the fiction is made to look very much like substance, but fiction can never become substance. It is an impossibility!
The profits from all the registered things had to be put into a 'constructive' trust for the benefit of the owners. If the profits were put into the general fund of the United States and not into separate trusts for the owners, the scheme would represent fraud. The profits for each owner could not be commingled. If the owner failed to use his available remedy (fictional credits held in a constructive trust account, fund, or financial ledger) to benefit from the profits, it would not be the fault of the deceivers. If the owner failed to learn the law that would open the door to his remedy, it would not be the fault of the deceivers. The owner is responsible for learning the law, so he understands that the profits from his things are available for him to discharge debts or charges brought against his public person (Debtor-straw-man) by the United States.
If the United States has the "gold", the United States pays the bills (from the trust account, fund, or financial ledger). The definition of "fund" is money set aside to pay a debt. The fund is there to discharge the public debts attributed to the United States subjects, but ultimately back to the accommodating parties - the American people. The national debt is what is owed to the owners of the registered things - the American people, as well as to other creditors!
If the United States owes a debt to the owner of the thing, and the owner is presumed (by accommodation) to owe a public debt to the United States, the logical thing is to ask the United States to discharge that public debt from the trust fund.
The way for the United States to get around having to pay the public debts for the people is to claim the owner cannot be an owner if he agreed to be the accommodating party for a debtor-person. If the people are truly the principle, then they know how to handle their financial and political affairs, UNLESS they have never been taught.
If the owner admits by his actions out of ignorance, that he is an accommodating party, he has taken on the debtor's- liabilities without getting consideration in exchange. Here lies the fiction again. The owner of the thing does not have to knowingly agree to be the accommodating party for the debtor person; he just has to act like he agreed. That is easy if he has a choice of going to jail or signing for the debtor-person. The presumption that he is the accommodating party is strong enough for the courts to hold the owner of the thing liable for a tax on the thing he actually owns or owes.
Debtors may have the 'use' of certain things, but the things belong to the creditors. The creditor is the master. The debtor is the servant. The Uniform Commercial Code is very specific about the duties and responsibilities a debtor has. If the owner of the thing is presumed to be a debtor because of his previous admissions and adhesion contracts, he is going to have a difficult time convincing the United States that it has a duty to discharge public debts for him. In addition, the courts are staffed with loyal judges who will look for every mistake the people make, when trying to use their remedy.
Now the quasi-owner (user) of the property (thing), after learning the law and discovering who he is in relation to the United States Corporation, can file a UCC Financing Statement based upon a Security Agreement, registering his security interest in the artificial entity DEBTOR/PERSON, being the ENS LEGIS which the United States created after your Mom signed the 'Root of Title/Newborn Identification' and then was compelled to apply for a birth certificate. That was the act of registering her biological property, her baby (substance), with the State of ____. The United States holds the paper title (form), not the substance (baby). Until your Financing Statement is filed, the United States is the holder of the title to the artificial entity. Its name is spelled in all capital letter - JOHN HENRY DOE. When John Henry Doe files the Financing Statement supported by a Security Agreement signed by the artificial entity (JOHN) and the owner (John), he becomes the holder in due course of the title to JOHN. The UCC and the State commercial law are very specific about the effect of a registered security interest. It has priority over most other interest claimed (only claimed) in the same thing. The evidence that is missing in the court is the registered claim over the person (JOHN).
The owner also must notify the Secretary of the Treasury that he is going to handle his own affairs in the future. That is done when you do the CHARGE BACK PROCESS by filing a Bill of Exchange with the Secretary through which he 'charges up the UCC Contract Trust Account,' in respect to the 'value' expressed on the Birth Certificate and the 'Directive' cover letter. The social security number, belonging to your Debtor, is the Trust Account Number for a chargeback, for all the presumed charges brought against your Debtor for proper discharge.
Think of the whole transaction in relation to a dead battery. The batter represents your public person (JOHN), which is a dead entity that can function within the public maize of fiction, transmitting benefits from the public to you in the private IF it is charged up. You cannot go into the public because you are not a fiction. JOHN has no power until it is charged with some energy. That energy comes from an IRS default notice, court judgment, credit card bill, utility bill, traffic ticket, or some other instrument that has a $ amount and JOHN'S name on it as the presumed debtor. The bill is the energy. It charges the dead JOHN. You can now discharge JOHN and put JOHN'S accrual account with the charging party back to a zero balance. You as the secured party creditor, having charged up the UCC Contract Trust Account, now for the 'presentment' received in behalf of a debt owed by JOHN, you can discharge the fine, fee, tax or debt with a negotiable instrument for the same $ amount as the charging instrument (presentment) stipulates. The charging party that receives your non-cash item can process it back through the United States Treasury through their financial institution. Note; if discharging IRS Tax liability, the package/instrument goes directly to the Secretary of Treasury - U.S.
When you, as the owner of a thing, registered it with the United States or one of its subdivisions, you let the United States hold the legal title to your thing based on misrepresentation and failure to disclose material facts to you at the time of registration. You probably retained possession of the thing, but the United States/States invested the title and made a profit. If you did not specifically authorize the United States/State and its agents to invest the legal title, the profits made from that title belong to you, because as the owner, you remain the equitable title holder. Legally, all the profits from the investment of the titles to all your registered things must go into a fund for your benefit. If they did not put the profits in a trust fund of some sort, it would be fraud.
Just acquiring the titles through what is promoted as mandatory registration, is fraud. If the scenario attributed to Mandell House is now in full application in the United States, which it is, the officers of the United States could be charged and convicted with treason IF they had not provided a remedy, which they did. -- House Joint Resolution 192 on June 5, 1933. This is their insurance policy to assure they are not convicted of treason. That does not mean they cannot be charged with treason, but the courts will dismiss based on failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. Because you have a remedy outside the court, you cannot sustain a charge of treason. But Tort, now that's another matter!